Additive Manufacturing (AM) encompasses all processes that create items by connecting materials layer for layer as specified by a digital 3D model. Often referred to as 3D printing, this technique has many advantages, such as increased flexibility and rapid prototyping. However, there is concern about the technology’s role in undermining non-proliferation regimes of conventional arms, and its potential for creating weapons of mass destruction and security risks related to its physical-digital and dual-use nature. At the same time, AM’s special characteristics can be leveraged to support arms control, for instance with new 3D-printed verification sensors. Additionally, policy makers and scientists are presented with an opportunity to develop an innovative mix of cyber and physical arms control measures to counter risks associated with AM, potentially leading by example to facilitate the control of other emerging technologies.
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